© 2015 Zalmaï for Human Rights Watch

The Den Bosch model is a trauma-focused group treatment that was originally developed in the Netherlands for refugees and asylum seekers who were victims of political and war violence. The Den Bosch model is similar to the other phase-oriented trauma treatments but has unique adaptations that cover the specific needs of refugees and asylum seekers.

It has five phases and combines aspects from “psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and supportive treatment approaches.” In addition to the group therapy sessions, participants also take part in nonverbal therapies, such as art, music, or psychomotor body therapy.

As of June 2019, there are 25.9 million refugees and 3.5 million asylum seekers in the world.


A refugee is a person who was forced to leave their home country due to a “well-founded fear” of being persecuted or harmed based on their belonging to a specific race, religion, ethnicity, or political party. Refugees have certain protections under international laws.

Asylum Seekers

Asylum seekers, on the other hand, are people who are trying to apply for international protections but have not yet been legally identified as refugees. Asylum seekers must prove to their host country that they meet the requirements necessary for…

Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a disorder that causes a person to be unable to form healthy emotional relationships with others. It is developed at a young age and occurs when there is a lack of attachment to the child’s primary caregiver. This lack of attachment occurs from the pathogenic care that the child receives while young which is usually caused by abuse or neglect but can also happen when the primary caregiver of the child is always changing.

Symptoms and Behaviors

Children who are most likely to have RAD come from physically and/or emotionally abusive homes or from orphanages and foster cares…

The Malleus Maleficarum was a treatise on witchcraft that explained how to identify and prosecute witches. It also described the ways in which witches could cause maleficium and their relationship with the Devil. It was written by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger, who were both Catholic inquisitors, in 1486 and was first published in Germany in 1487.

It is important to note that when the Malleus Maleficarum was first published it was written in Latin which meant that the only individuals who could read it at the time were academic scholars, inquisitors, and judges. …

Robert Neubecker

Negative Outcomes

1. Essentialist beliefs of nationality could lead to the formation of anti-immigration policies in certain countries.

Essentialism reduces people’s motivation to interact with members of other categories. People who hold essentialist views will be less likely to have social interactions with immigrants and are less likely to befriend them.

This can cause people to remain ignorant about the plight of immigrants which can lead to the continuation of negative attitudes towards them because if people do not try to get to know immigrants, they will never know their backstory or understand why they needed to leave their homeland and come…

National identification is defined as the extent to which a person identifies with a specific nation or people and how much they feel as though they belong. It is also described as “the sense of a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, language, and politics.”


Nationalism is considered an “ideological movement” and its central values are the pursuit or preservation of national autonomy, unity, and identity. It has been found that having an ethnic view of one’s national identity and nationalism is an essentialist way of thinking. …

Research has found that working memory capacity (WMC) can affect the amount of mind wandering a person experiences. People who differ in WMC should experience life differently especially when it comes to their vulnerability to become distracted and make absentminded errors.

Those with low WMC are more likely to mind wander on tasks that are challenging, demanding, and require more concentration than those with high WMC. People with lower WMC also tend to have more unintended task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs). An example of how this can affect people with low WMC is that they tend to perform very poorly on comprehension…

The eugenics movement arose from research conducted by Sir Francis Galton in which he concluded that the children of distinguished individuals were more likely to become distinguished than the children of people who were not distinguished. His findings led to the idea of selective breeding as a way to encourage those with desirable characteristics to marry and produce offspring while discouraging the reproduction of people considered less desirable. Galton called this process eugenics, which comes from the Greek word “eugenes” and means well-born. He described eugenics as “the cultivation of race” and “the science of improving stock.” Galton noted that…

The eugenics movement was based on the idea that one could strengthen a specific biological group by evaluating an individual’s hereditary worth and determining if they would produce strong offspring. These beliefs matched well “with the German concept of racial hygiene” which aimed to purify the German race.

The term “racial hygiene” was created by a German doctor named Alfred Plotz in 1895. He later founded the German Society for Racial Hygiene in 1904. …

Is HPD perceived to be solely feminine? HPD has long been viewed as a feminine disorder and the criteria that are needed to have HPD consist of symptoms that are viewed as being feminine in nature.

Seven symptoms that were categorized as being feminine were “cries easily, unsatisfied with appearance, moody, eats too little, overly dramatic, excessively emotional and attention seeking, and talkative.” Many of these symptoms could be considered part of the diagnostic criteria for HPD.

Moody could refer to HPD’s criterion of “rapidly changing and shallow expression of emotions” while overly dramatic could be seen as “self-dramatization or…

Hunter Leckonby

Doctoral student in clinical psychology. Advocate for mental health awareness and diversity. Buy me a coffee ❤: https://ko-fi.com/mentology

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